GMO Studies


Harnessing education, advocacy, and bold action to foster consumer rejection of genetically modified organisms.
This compilation is a sample of the scientific references including over 1300 studies, surveys, and analyses that suggest various adverse impacts and potential adverse impacts of genetically engineered (GE/GMO) crops, foods and related pesticides. This list contains references regarding health impacts, environmental impacts, including impact of non-target organisms (NTOs), resistance of target organisms, genetic drift and drift of pesticides, horizontal gene transfer, unintended effects, as well as references regarding yields, social impact, ethics, economics and regulations. In most cases, links are provided to the abstracts for the references.

1. Abdo E. M., et al. Chemical Analysis of BT corn “Mon- 810: Ajeeb-YG®” and its counterpart non-Bt corn “Ajeeb” IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry (IOSR-JAC) e-ISSN: 2278–5736. Volume 4, Issue 1 (Mar.–Apr. 2013), PP 55–60

2. S. L. Abidi, G. R. List, K. A. Rennick (1999) Effect of genetic modification on the distribution of minor constituents in canola oil Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, Volume 76, Issue 4, pp 463-467

3. Accinelli, C.; Screpanti, C.; Vicari, A. & Catizone, P. (2004) Influence of insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp.kurstaki on the degradation of glyphosate and glufosinate-ammonium in soil samples. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment,103, 497-507.

4. Achiorno, C. L., C. de Villalobos, and L. Ferrari. (2008) Toxicity of the Herbicide Glyphosate to Chordodes Nobilii (Gordiida, Nematomorpha). Chemosphere 71, no. 10 (May): 1816-22.

5. Acquavella JF, Alexander BH, Mandel JS, Gustin C, Baker B, Chapman P, Bleeke M. (2004) Glyphosate biomonitoring for farmers and their families: results from the Farm Family Exposure Study. Environ Health Perspect. Mar;112(3):321-6.

6. Adam A, Marzuki A, Abdul Rahman H, Abdul Aziz M. (1997)The oral and intratracheal toxicities of ROUNDUP and its components to rats. Vet Hum Toxicol. Jun;39(3):147-51.

7. Adugna A, Bekele E: (2013) Geographical distribution and phenotypic diversity in wild sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.)] in Ethiopia: implications for germplasm conservation and crop-wild flow. Plant Genet Resour , 11:68–76

8. Asfaw Adugna (2013) Ecotypic variation for seed dormancy, longevity and germination requirements in wild/weedy Sorghum bicolor in Ethiopia: implications for seed mediated transgene dispersal and persistence SpringerPlus May, 2:248,

9. Adugna, A., & Bekele, E. (2013) Morphology and fitness components of wild 3 crop F1 hybrids of Sorghum bi- color (L.) in Ethiopia: implications for survival and introgression of crop genes in the wild pool. Plant Genetic Resources: Characterization and Utilization: 1-10

10. Sarah Zanon Agapito-Tenfen, Miguel Pedro Guerra, Odd-Gunnar Wikmark and Rubens Onofre Nodari (2013) Comparative proteomic analysis of genetically modified maize grown under different agroecosystems conditions in Brazil Proteome Science , 11:46

11. Agodi A, Barchitta M, Grillo A and Sciacca S (2006) Detection of genetically modified DNA sequences in milk from the Italian market. Int J Hyg Environ Health 209:81- 88.

12. Aguilera M, Querci M, Balla B, Prospero A, Ermolli M, Van denEede G (2008) A Qualitative Approach for the Assessment of Genetic Stability of the MON810 Trait in Commercial Seed Maize Varieties. Food Anal .Methods 1:252258

13. Aheto, D.W., Bøhn, T., Breckling, B., van den Berg, J., Ching, L.L. and Wikmark, O.-G. (2013) Implications of GM crops in subsistence-based agricultural systems in Africa. In: Breckling, B. and Verhoeven, R. GM-Crop Cultivation – Ecological Effects on a Landscape Scale, Theorie in der Ökologie 17. Frankfurt, Peter Lang.

14. Iftikhar Ahmad, David Malloch (1995) Interaction of soil microflora with the bioherbicide phosphinothricin Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment Netherlands. Vol. 54, no. 3 Jul p. 165-174;jsessionid=gzL79cPgBlupOuS2JMt9.52

15. N B Akesson, and W E Yates (1964)Problems Relating to Application of Agricultural Chemicals and Resulting Drift Residues Annual Review of Entomology Vol. 9: 285-318

16. Albinati ACL, Moreira ELT, Albinati RCB, J.V. Carvalho, A.D. de Lira, G.B. Santos, L.V.O. Vidal (2009) Biomarcadores histológicos – toxicidade crônica pelo Roundup em piauçu (Leporinus macrocephalus). Arq Bras Med Vet Zootec. 61(3):621–627.

17. Kassim Al-Khatib, Robert Parker and E. Patrick Fuerst (1992) Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Response to Simulated Herbicide Spray Drift Weed Technology Vol. 6, No. 4 (Oct. – Dec., 1992), pp. 956-960

18. Kassim Al-Khatib, Robert Parker and E. Patrick Fuerst (1993) Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Response to Simulated Herbicide Drift Weed Technology Vol. 7, No. 1 (Jan. – Mar.), pp. 97-102

19. Al-Khatib, K., M. M. Claassen, P. W. Stahlman, P. W. Geier, D. L. Regehr, S. R. Duncan, and W. F. Heer. (2003) Grain Sorghum Response to Simulated Drift from Glufosinate, Glyphosate, Imazethapyr, and Sethoxydim.” Weed Technology 17, no. 2(Apr-Jun): 261-65.

20. Allison, RF, Scneider WL, Greene AE (1996) Recombination in plants expressing viral transgenes Seminars in Virology 7(6) pp 417-422
21. Alpert CA, Mater DD, Muller MC, Ouriet MF, Duval-Iflah Y, Corthier G. (2003) Worst-case scenarios for horizontal gene transfer from Lactococcus lactis carrying heterologous genes to Enterococcus faecalis in the digestive tract of gnotobiotic mice. Environ Biosafety Res. Jul-Sep;2(3):173-80.
22. Al-Salameen F, Kumar V, Al-Aqeel H, Al-Hashash H, Hejji AB. (2012) Detection of genetically modified DNA in fresh and processed foods sold in Kuwait. GM Crops Food. Oct-Dec;3(4):283-8.
23. Miguel A. Altieri, Peter M. Rosset, Clara I. Nicholls (1997) Biological control and agricultural modernization: Towards resolution of some contradictions Agriculture and Human Values September, Volume 14, Issue 3, pp 303-310
24. Altieri, M.A. and Rosset, P. (1999). Ten reasons why biotechnology will not ensure food security, protect the environment and reduce poverty in the developing world. AgBioForum, 2(3&4), 155-162.
25. Altieri MA, Rosset P. (1999) Strengthening the case for why biotechnology will not help. The developing world: A response to MCGloughlin. AgBioForum. 2(3-4):226–236.
26. Altieri, M. A. (2000). The ecological impacts of transgenic crops on agroecosystem health. Ecosystem Health, 6, 13-23.
27. Altieri, M. A. (2001). Genetically engineered crops: Separating the myths from the reality. Bulletin of Science Technology and Society, 21(2), 129-146.
28. Altieri, M. A. (2003). The sociocultural and food security impacts of genetic pollution via transgenic crops of traditional varieties in Latin American centers of peasant agriculture. Bulletin of Science, Technology, & Society, 23,1-10.
29. Miguel A. Altieri (2005) The Myth of Coexistence: Why Transgenic Crops Are Not Compatible With Agroecologically Based Systems of Production Bulletin of Science Technology Society August vol. 25 no. 4 361-371
30. Al-Rajab AJ, Schiavon M. (2010) Degradation of 14C-glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in three agricultural soils. J Environ Sci (China). ;22(9):1374-80.
31. Alvarez-Morales A (2002) Transgenes in maize landraces in Oaxaca: official report on the extent and implications. The 7th International Symposium on the Biosafety of Genetically Modified Organisms Beijing, China October 10-16 page 65
32. Amanor-Boadu V, Amanor-Boadu Y (2002). A survey of post-marketing surveillance of potential human late health effects of genetically modified foods’ initiatives: lessons for Canada’s strategy. Centre for Surveillance Coordination, Health Canada
33. Amer SM, Aly FA. (2001) Genotoxic effect of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid and its metabolite 2,4-dichlorophenol in mouse. Mutat Res. 2001 Jul 25;494(1-2):1-12.
34. Anderson, P. L., Hellmich, R. L. Sears, M. K., Sumerford, D. V., and Lewis, L. C. (2004) Effects of Cry1Ab-expressing corn anthers on monarch butterfly larvae. Environ. Entomol. 33: 1109-1115.
35. Anderson, P. L., Hellmich, R. L., Prasifka, J. R., and Lewis, L. C. (2005) Effects on fitness and behavior of monarch butterfly larvae exposed to a combination of Cry1Ab-expressing corn anthers and pollen. Environ. Entomol. 34:944-952.
36. Andow, D.A. and A.Hilbeck. (2004) Science-based risk assessment for non-target effects of transgenic crops. Bioscience 54(7):637-649
37. ?Andow DA, Lövei GL, Arpaia S (2006) Ecological risk assessment for Bt crops. Nat Biotechnol 24:749–751
38. Andow, D.A.& Zwahlen,C. (2006) Assessing environmental risks of transgenic plants. Ecology Letters 9:196-214
39. Antoniou M. Genetic pollution. (1996) Nutritional Therapy Today. 6(4): 8–11.
40. Antoniou M, Habib MEM, Howard C V, Jennings R C, Leifert C, Nodari R O, Robinson C J, Fagan J (2012) Teratogenic Effects of Glyphosate-Based Herbicides : Divergence of Regulatory Decisions from Scientific Evidence. J Environ Anal Toxicol S4:006
41. Aono M, Wakiyama S, Nagatsu M, Nakajima N, Tamaoki M, Kubo A, Saji H (2006) Detection of feral transgenic oilseed rape with multiple-herbicide resistance in Japan. Environ Biosafety Res. Apr-Jun;5(2):77-87.
42. Aono M, Wakiyama S, Nagatsu M, Kaneko Y, Nishizawa T, Nakajima N, Tamaoki M, Kubo A, Saji H. (2011) Seeds of a possible natural hybrid between herbicide-resistant Brassica napus and Brassica rapa detected on a riverbank in Japan. GM Crops. Jun-Dec;2(3):201-10.
43. Arbuckle, T.E.; Lin, Z.& Mery, L.S. (2001). An exploratory analysis of the effect of pesticide exposure on the risk of spontaneous abortion in an Ontario farm population. Environmental Health Perspectives, 109, 851-857.
44. Aris A, Leblanc S. (2011) Maternal and fetal exposure to pesticides associated to genetically modified foods in Eastern Townships of Quebec, Canada. Reprod Toxicol. May;31(4):528-33
45. Aris Aziz (2011) Response to Bayer CropScience’s position on the findings of glufosinate and its metabolite Reproductive toxicology vol. 32, no4, pp. 496-497
46. Aris Aziz (2012) Response to “Food Standards Australia New Zealand’s” comments Reproductive toxicology vol. 33, no3, pp. 403-404
47. Sophia Armenakas, Macrene Alexiades-Armenakas (2013) Genetically-Modified Organisms in United States Agriculture: Mandate for Food Labeling Food & Nutrition Sciences . Aug, Vol. 4 Issue 8, p807-811. 5p.
48. Arregui MC, Lenardon A, Sanchez D, Maitre MI, Scotta R, Enrique S(2004). Monitoring glyphosate residues in transgenic glyphosate-resistant soybean. Pest Manag Sci. 60:163-166.
49. Arriola, P.E., Ellstrand,N.C. (1996) Crop to weed gene flow in the genus Sorghum (Poaceae): Spontaneous interspecific hybridization between johnsongrass, Sorghum halepense, and crop sorghum S. bicolor. American Journal of Botany, 83(9): 1153-1160.
50. Arriola PE, Ellstrand NC (1997) Fitness of interspecific hybrids in the genus Sorghum: persistence of crop genes in wild populations. Ecol Appl 7: 512–518
51. A. Ashouri, Dominique Michaud, Conrad Cloutier (2001) Recombinant and classically selected factors of potato plant resistance to the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata , variously affect the potato aphid parasitoid Aphidius nigripes BioControl December, Volume 46, Issue 4, pp 401-418
52. Astiz M, de Alaniz MJ, Marra CA. (2009) Effect of pesticides on cell survival in liver and brain rat tissues. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. Oct;72(7):2025-32.
53. Astiz M, Hurtado de Catalfo GE, García MN, Galletti SM, Errecalde AL, de Alaniz MJ, Marra CA. (2013) Pesticide-induced decrease in rat testicular steroidogenesis is differentially prevented by lipoate and tocopherol. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. May;91:129-38.
54. Astiz M, de Alaniz MJ, Marra CA. (2012) The oxidative damage and inflammation caused by pesticides are reverted by lipoic acid in rat brain. Neurochem Int. Dec;61(7):1231-41.
56. Atkinson RG, Schröder R, Hallett I, Cohen D, MacRae EA (2002). Overexpression of Polygalacturonase in Transgenic Apple Trees Leads to a Range of Novel Phenotypes Involving Changes in Cell Adhesion. Plant Physiol. 129: 122-133.
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59. Avila-Garcia, W.V. & Mallory-Smith, C. (2011) Glyphosate-resistant Italian ryegrass (Lolium perenne) populations also exhibit resistance to glufosinate.Weed Science, 59, 305-309.
60. Ayoola, S. O. (2008) Histopathological Effects of Glyphosate on Juvenile African Catfish (Clarias Gariepinus). American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci. 4, no. 3 362-67.
61. Ayoola, S. O. (2008)Toxicity of Glyphosate Herbicide on Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus) Juvenile. African Journal of Agricultural Research 3, no. 12 : 825-34.,+2008.pdf.
62. Babendreier D, Reichhart B, Romeis J, Bigler F .(2008) Impact of insecticidal proteins expressed in transgenic plants on bumblebee microcolonies. Entomol Exp Appl 126:148-57
63. Baerson S. R.; Rodriquez D. J.; Tran M.; Feng Y.; Biest N. A.; Dill G. M.Glyphosate-resistant goosegrass. Identification of a mutation in the target enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase. Plant Physiol. 2002, 129, 1265-1275.
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65. Pallava Bagla (2010) Hardy Cotton-Munching Pests Are Latest Blow to GM Crops Science 19 March : Vol. 327 no. 5972 p. 1439
66. Bailey, W., Poston, D.H.,Wilson, H.P., Hines, T.E. 2002. Glyphosate interactions with manganese. Weed Technology 16, 792–799.
67. Bakke-McKellep AM, Koppang EO, Gunnes G, Sanden M, Hemre GI, Landsverk T, Krogdahl A. (2007) Histological, digestive, metabolic, hormonal and some immune factor responses in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., fed genetically modified soybeans. J Fish Dis. Feb;30(2):65-79
68. Bakonyi G, Szira F, Kiss I, Villányi I, Seres A, Székács A (2006) Preference tests with collembolas on isogenic and Bt-maize. Eur J Soil Biol 42:S132–S135
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